As early as the 1930s, the United States used additives in lubricants. With the development of the machinery industry, especially the upgrading of internal combustion engines, and the continuous improvement of oil performance requirements, lubricant additives have also been developed, forming a corresponding series of additives. The role of lubricant additives can be summarized in three aspects: ①Reduce the corrosion and wear of metal parts; ②Inhibit the formation of sludge and paint film inside the components during engine operation; ③Improve the physical properties of the base oil. Lubricating oil additives mainly include metal detergents, ashless dispersants, antioxidants, viscosity index improvers, pour point depressants, extreme pressure antiwear agents, rust inhibitors, metal passivators and antifoam agents. Additives can be added to the oil alone, or the various additives needed can be adjusted into composite additives before being added to the oil.
Mainly used for internal combustion engine oil and marine cylinder oil. Its function is to inhibit the formation of carbon deposits in the piston ring groove of the cylinder, reduce the corrosion and wear of the metal parts caused by the adhesion of the paint film on the piston skirt and the acidic substances (including the oxidation products of the lubricating oil itself) produced after the fuel combustion. Commonly used are organic metal salts, such as sulfonates, alkylphenates, alkylsalicylates, and thiophosphonates. These salts are made into low alkalinity, medium alkalinity and high alkalinity respectively, and most of them are high alkalinity.
It is the fastest growing class of lubricant additives since the 1960s. Its outstanding performance is that it can inhibit the gasoline engine oil from generating sludge when the operating temperature of the crankcase is low, thereby avoiding blockage of the oil circuit in the gasoline engine, corrosion and wear of the mechanical parts. A representative compound is polyisobutylene succinimide. Ashless dispersant and metal detergent are used in combination, and a small amount of anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion agent is added to prepare various internal combustion engine oils.
According to different oil conditions, antioxidants can be roughly divided into: ① Antioxidant and anticorrosive agent, mainly used for internal combustion engine oil. In addition to inhibiting oil oxidation, it can also prevent the corrosion of crankcase bearings. The most widely used is zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate, which is also an effective extreme pressure anti-wear agent and is mostly used in industrial lubricants such as gear oils and anti-wear hydraulic oils. ② Antioxidant additives, mainly shielding phenols (such as 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol) and aromatic amines. The former is mostly used in industrial lubricants such as steam turbine oil and hydraulic oil; the latter is more commonly used in synthetic lubricants. The role of antioxidants is to delay oil oxidation and prolong service life.
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